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Vol. 46. Issue S2.
Gripe A (H1N1)
Pages 3-12 (March 2010)
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Vol. 46. Issue S2.
Gripe A (H1N1)
Pages 3-12 (March 2010)
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Epidemiología de la gripe A (H1N1) en el mundo y en España
Epidemiology of influenza A (H1N1) worldwide and in Spain
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Josep Vaqué
Servicio de Medicina Preventiva y Epidemiología, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, España
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Resumen

El 11 de junio de 2009, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró establecida la situación de pandemia debida a un nuevo virus influenza A (H1N1) de origen porcino. El virus empezó a producir casos de gripe en el mes de marzo en México, y a partir de mediados de abril en 6 semanas se extendió por todo el mundo.

Su transmisibilidad es ligeramente superior a la de la gripe estacional; en cambio, su patogenicidad y virulencia son bajas. Los grupos más afectados han sido los niños, jóvenes y adultos de menos de 30 años. La mortalidad se ha concentrado en las personas de 20 a 50 años.

La pandemia ha producido en los países de clima templado 2 ondas epidémicas. La primera se desarrolló desde mediados de abril hasta mediados de agosto y afectó, en primer a lugar, a México, Estados Unidos y luego a España, Reino Unido, Japón y otros países del hemisferio norte. Unas semanas después, coincidiendo con el inicio de la estación gripal, afectó a los países del hemisferio sur, en especial Argentina, Chile, Australia y Nueva Zelanda, en los que concluyó a finales de septiembre u octubre.

La segunda ola se ha desarrollado en el hemisferio norte, iniciándose a comienzos de septiembre en Estados Unidos y México, y unas semanas más tarde en los países europeos; a mediados de diciembre se ha dado por concluida, aunque la actividad gripal persiste. Esta segunda ola ha sido mucho más intensa que la primera.

Palabras clave:
Epidemiología de la gripe
Virus influenza A (H1N1) 2009
Diseminación de la gripe
Tasas de ataque de la gripe
Tasa de letalidad de la gripe
Abstract

On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared an established pandemic due to a new influenza virus A (H1N1) of swine origin. Initial cases were detected in Mexico in March and within 6 weeks the virus had spread worldwide.

The transmissibility of influenza A (H1NA) is slightly higher than that of the seasonal virus, but its pathogenicity and virulence are low. The main target groups of this new virus have been children and young adults under 30 years old. Mortality has affected mainly persons aged between 20 and 50 years old. In areas with temperate climates, two epidemic waves have occurred. The first one, from mid-April to mid-August, affected Mexico, the United States and, consecutively, Spain, England, Japan, and other countries in the northern hemisphere. A few weeks later, coinciding with the beginning of the influenza season, the H1N1 epidemic started in the southern hemisphere countries, especially Argentina, Chile, Australia and New Zealand; in these countries, the epidemic finished at the end of September or October.

The second wave affected the northern hemisphere, starting in the United States and Mexico at the beginning of September, and a few weeks later in European countries. In mid-December, this wave was considered to have ended, although some influenza activity persists. The intensity of this second wave was higher compared to the first one.

Keywords:
Influenza epidemiology
Influenza virus A (H1N1) 2009
Influenza dissemination
Influenza attack rates
Case-fatality proportion
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