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Vol. 46. Issue S2.
Gripe A (H1N1)
Pages 19-23 (March 2010)
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Vol. 46. Issue S2.
Gripe A (H1N1)
Pages 19-23 (March 2010)
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Influenza A (H1N1): manifestaciones clínicas e indicaciones profilácticas y terapéuticas
Influenza A (H1N1): clinical manifestations and prophylactic and therapeutic indications
Visits
...
Arturo Huerta García, Nuria González Sánchez, Antoni Torres Martí??
Corresponding author
atorres@clinic.ub.es

Autor para correspondencia.
Servicio de Neumología, Institut Clínic del Tòrax, Hospital Clínic-IDIBAPS, Barcelona, España CIBER de Respiratorio 06/06/0028, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, España
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Resumen

La influenza A/H1N1 se diagnosticó por primera vez en México y Estados Unidos en abril de 2009. La rapidez de su diseminación mundial ha alertado a las autoridades sanitarias y a la comunidad científica internacional. Los síntomas clínicos habituales de esta enfermedad pueden no distinguirse de la influenza estacional e incluyen: tos, fiebre, mal estado general, odinofagia y dolores musculares. Hasta el momento la tasa de hospitalización es relativamente baja (menos de un 15%). De la población afectada, hay 2 grupos que presentan una mayor morbimortalidad: embarazadas y mayores de 65 años. El tratamiento es con los inhibidores de la neuraminidasa: oseltamivir, zanamivir y peramivir, que ayudarían a disminuir las complicaciones y el tiempo de duración de los síntomas. El diagnóstico definitivo se hace basándose en técnicas de rt-PCR. El resto del tratamiento consiste en las medidas universales de aislamiento, antitérmicos y reposo. La tasa de casos fatales (aunque en Latinoamérica parece ser más alta) se reporta globalmente como menor del 1%. En este estudio se hace una recopilación de la información disponible acerca de las manifestaciones, criterios de diagnóstico y tratamiento/profilaxis de la enfermedad.

Palabras clave:
Influenza
A (H1N1)
Tratamiento
Manifestaciones clínicas
Abstract

Influenza A (H1N1) was first diagnosed in Mexico and the United States in April 2009. The rapidity of its worldwide spread has alerted the health authorities and international scientific community. The usual clinical symptoms of this disease cannot be distinguished from those of seasonal influenza and include cough, fever, poor general status, odynophagia and muscular aches. To date, the hospitalization rate has been relatively low (less than 15%). Among the affected population, there are two groups with high morbidity and mortality: pregnant women and persons aged more than 65 years. Treatment consists of the neuroaminidase inhibitors oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir, which can help to reduce complications and symptom duration. Definitive diagnosis is based on reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction techniques. The remaining treatment options consist of universal measures of isolation, antipyretics and rest. Mortality is less than 1% globally but seems to be higher in Latin America. The present study gathers the available information on the manifestations, diagnostic criteria and treatment/prophylaxis of the disease.

Keywords:
Influenza
A/H1N1
Treatment
Clinical manifestations
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Copyright © 2010. Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica
Archivos de Bronconeumología

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