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Vol. 43. Issue 5.
Pages 248-255 (January 2007)
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Vol. 43. Issue 5.
Pages 248-255 (January 2007)
Original Articles
DOI: 10.1016/S1579-2129(07)60062-7
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Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Asthmatic Patients' Knowledge of Their Disease
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A. Renata Báez Saldaña
Corresponding author
baezrd@servidor.unam.mx

Correspondence: Dra. A.R. Báez Saldaña. Clínica de Asma. Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias. Calzada de Tlalpan, 4.502. Col. Sección XVI. 14080 México DF. México
, Rocío Chapela Mendoza, Loredmy Herrera Kiengelher, Rebeca Ortiz Siordia, Jorge Salas Hernández
Clínica de Asma, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Ciudad de México, México
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Objetive

To develop a valid, reliable, and sensitive self-administered questionnaire in Spanish to measure the knowledge asthmatic patients have of their disease.

Patients and methods

The face and content validity of the questions was established by consensus among expert pulmonologists. To determine the importance of the questions, they were put to 100 participating asthmatic patients. The number of questions was reduced by consensus taking into account the importance given to each question by these patients. A further 25 patients participated in the assessment of reliability and sensitivity. The questionnaire was administered 5 times: twice before and 3 times after an educational intervention. The direct and indirect test-retest consistency (κ statistic) and the overall κ value were determined. Sensitivity was assessed from the number of correct answers before and after the intervention (Wilcoxon test; P<.05) and from the percentage change (> 40% was clinically significant).

Results

Fifty-nine questions were drawn up and the final version included 20. The direct consistency was between 0.81 and 1 in 76% of the cases before the intervention and in 92% after it. The κ statistic before the intervention was between 0.41 and 1 in 96% of the cases, and between 0.81 and 1 in 88% afterwards. The overall κ values before and after the intervention were 0.12 and 0.43, respectively. The median sensitivity, measured as percentage change, was 67% and 10 patients showed an improvement between 81% and 233%.

Conclusions

The questionnaire is reliable, has face and content validity, and is very sensitive to change. In view of these results, this instrument is useful for measuring the knowledge that asthmatic patients have of their disease in clinical practice and investigation.

Key words:
Knowledge questionnaire
Asthmatic patient
Validity
Reliability
Sensitivity
Objetivo

Desarrollar un cuestionario en español, auto-administrado, que mida los conocimientos del paciente as-mático en relación con su enfermedad y que sea válido, fia-ble y sensible.

Pacientes y métodos

La validez de apariencia y conteni-do de las preguntas redactadas se estableció por consenso de neumólogos expertos. Para la calificación de la importancia de las preguntas participaron 100 pacientes asmáticos. La reducción del número de preguntas para la versión final del cuestionario se realizó por consenso y tomando en conside-ración la escala de importancia determinada por los mismos pacientes. Para evaluar la fiabilidad y sensibilidad partici-paron otros 25 pacientes. El cuestionario se aplicó en 5 oca-siones diferentes: 2 previas y 3 posteriores a la intervención educativa. Se midió la consistencia externa directa e indirec-ta (índice kappa) y la kappa global. La sensibilidad se deter-minó con el número de aciertos antes y después de la inter-vención (prueba de Wilcoxon; p < 0,05) y mediante el porcentaje de cambio (> 40%, clínicamente significativo).

Resultados

Se redactaron 59 preguntas y la versión final del cuestionario consta de 20. La consistencia directa antes y después de la intervención fue de 0,81-1 en el 76 y el 92% de los casos, respectivamente. El índice kappa antes de la inter-vención se situó entre 0,41 y 1 en el 96% de los casos, y des-pués fue de 0,81-1 en el 88%. La kappa global antes y des-pués de la intervención fue de 0,12 y 0,43, respectivamente. La mediana de la sensibilidad, medida en porcentaje de cam-bio, fue del 67% y la moda se situó entre el 81 y el 233%.

Conclusiones

El cuestionario es fiable, reúne los crite-rios de validez de contenido y apariencia y es muy sensible al cambio. En virtud de la magnitud de los resultados, es un instrumento útil para medir los conocimientos del paciente asmático en la práctica clínica o la investigación.

Palabras clave:
Cuestionario de conocimientos
Paciente asmá-tico
Validez
Fiabilidad
Sensibilidad
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Copyright © 2007. Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica (SEPAR)
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