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Vol. 44. Issue 8.
Pages 402-407 (January 2008)
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Vol. 44. Issue 8.
Pages 402-407 (January 2008)
Original Articles
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Contribution of Exhaled Nitric Oxide Measurements to Abbreviated Bronchial Challenge Test Protocols
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Amparo Lloris Bayo*, Miguel Perpiñá Tordera, Encarnación Martínez Pérez, Vicente Macián Gisbert
Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain E-mail: amparolloris@yaho
Article information
Objective

The bronchial challenge test is commonly used to diagnose asthma but it is a tedious, time-consuming procedure. Although in recent years, several shortened methods have been proposed, it has been shown that they can give rise to exaggerated bronchoconstriction. The aims of the present study were a) to determine the frequency of exaggerated bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma following the application of a shortened bronchial challenge test, and b) to determine if the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) can be used to predict the onset of exaggerated bronchoconstriction.

Patients and methods

We performed a prospective study of 210 patients with asthma in whom FENO levels were measured in accordance with the abbreviated protocol recommended by the European Respiratory Society (ERS). Exaggerated bronchoconstriction was defined as a decrease of more than 20% in forced expiratory volume in 1 second after the first challenge, after a skipped dose, or after administration of saline. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to determine the best FENO cutoff value for predicting exaggerated bronchoconstriction. The pretest probability of developing exaggerated bronchoconstriction was also calculated using Bayes' theorem.

Results

The frequency of exaggerated bronchoconstriction in our series was 30%. Patients who developed exaggerated bronchoconstriction had significantly higher FENO levels than those who did not (32.6 vs 16.2 parts per billion [ppb]). The chosen FENO cutoff of 19.5 ppb had a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 77%, and a negative predictive value of 88%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.77–0.89).

Conclusions

The abbreviated bronchial challenge test recommended by the ERS led to exaggerated bronchoconstriction in 30% of the patients studied. FENO measurements could possibly be used to identify patients at increased risk of exaggerated bronchoconstriction. The shortened challenge test can be performed safely in individuals with a FENO of <19.5 ppb.

Key words:
Exhaled nitric oxide
Bronchial challenge test
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves
Exaggerated bronchoconstriction
Objetivo

La prueba de provocación bronquial es un procedimiento habitual en el diagnóstico del asma, pero su realización resulta larga y tediosa. Por ello se han propuesto métodos que acortan su duración. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se ha señalado que dichos métodos pueden dar lugar a broncoconstricciones excesivas (BE). Los objetivos del presente estudio han sido: a) determinar la frecuencia de BE en pacientes con asma tras la aplicación del método abreviado de la prueba de provocación bronquial, y b) cuantificar si la determinación de óxido nítrico en aire exhalado (ONE) puede predecir la aparición de BE.

Pacientes y métodos

Se ha realizado un estudio prospectivo sobre 210 asmáticos a quienes se determinó el ONE y se realizó una prueba de provocación bronquial siguiendo el protocolo abreviado de la European Respiratory Society (ERS). Se definió BE como una caída superior al 20% del volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo tras la primera dosis, después de suprimir una dosis o tras el diluyente. Se construyó una curva de eficacia diagnóstica para determinar el mejor punto de corte del ONE para predecir BE y se calculó la probabilidad preprueba de presentar BE, siguiendo el teorema de Bayes.

Resultados

La frecuencia de BE en nuestra serie fue del 30%. Hubo diferencias significativas en el ONE, siendo la concentración más elevada en el grupo que presentó BE (32,6 frente a 16,2 ppb). El punto de corte de ONE elegido fue 19,5 ppb, con una sensibilidad del 80%, especificidad del 77% y valor predictivo negativo del 88%. El área bajo la curva de eficacia diagnóstica fue de 0,83 (intervalo de confianza del 95%, 0,77–0,89).

Conclusiones

La prueba de provocación bronquial abreviada que recomienda la ERS da lugar a un 30% de BE. La determinación de ONE podría identificar a los pacientes con mayor probabilidad de presentar BE. Una concentración de ONE inferior a 19,5 ppb permite realizar la prueba de provocación bronquial abreviada con seguridad.

Palabras clave:
Óxido nítrico exhalado
Prueba de provocación bronquial
Curvas de eficacia diagnóstica
Broncoconstricción excesiva
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This study was partly funded by a grant from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI05/0583).

Copyright © 2008. Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica (SEPAR)
Archivos de Bronconeumología

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